Categories
Gynecology

Delayed puberty: Definition, causes and management

Delayed puberty is defined as the failure of secondary sexual characteristics to appear by the age of 14 years.

Delayed puberty is classified based on the causes into two:

  • central (hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism)
  • gonadal (hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism).

Central causes of delayed puberty includes conditions that prevent hypothalamic GnRH production/release, such as:

  • Constitutional
  • Excessive exercise
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Kallman’s syndrome
  • Pituitary tumour
  • Chronic illness (sickle cell disease, diabetes mellitus, etc).
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Categories
Gynecology

Precocious Puberty: Definition, causes and management

Precocious puberty is defined as the onset of puberty before the age of 8 years in a girl or 9 years in a boy.

Types of precocious puberty

Precocious puberty is classified based on the causes into two:

  • central (also called complete or true)
  • peripheral (also called incomplete or pseudo)

Central causes of precocious puberty includes conditions that prematurely activate the hypothalamic GnRH pulsatile release, such as:

  1. Cerebral tumours (e.g.
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Categories
Reproductive physiology

Female Puberty: Definition, changes and factors affecting it.

Puberty is a developmental process by which a fully competent adult reproductive capacity is established.

In the US, it usually occurs in girls between 8 and 13 years of age, whereas in Nigeria between 9 and 13 years.

Physical changes in puberty

  • Thelarche
  • Pubic hair growth
  • Axillary hair growth
  • Growth spurt
  • Menarche

Breast budding (thelarche) is the first sign of puberty.… Read More “Female Puberty: Definition, changes and factors affecting it.”

Categories
Anatomy

Tanner Staging of Breast and Pubic Hair development

This is a 5-stage system proposed by Marshall and Tanner in 1969 for grading female breast and pubic hair development.

Tanner staging of Breast Development

  1. Elevation of papilla only (pre-pubertal breast)
  2. Breast budding
  3. Enlargement of breast without areola separation/elevation
  4. Formation of secondary mound by areola
  5. Mature breast: areola regresses to form single contour of breast, only papilla remains projected.
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Categories
Procedures

McDonald’s cervical cerclage

A cervical cerclage is a surgical procedure in which sutures or synthetic tape is used to reinforce the cervix, and is used in the treatment of cervical incompetence.

McDonald’s cervical cerclage is a type originally described by McDonald in 1957, and is a commonly performed procedure in modern obstetric practice.… Read More “McDonald’s cervical cerclage”

Categories
Pharmacology

Oxytocin: Its Pharmacology and Use in Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Introduction

Oxytocin is one the commonly used drugs in obstetrics and gynaecology as it can be prepared synthetically. It is a peptide hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. It’s also called cuddle or love hormone. It plays an important role in uterine contractions and milk ejection.… Read More “Oxytocin: Its Pharmacology and Use in Obstetrics and Gynaecology”

Categories
Pharmacology

Misoprostol: Its Pharmacology and Use in Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Introduction

Misoprostol is a synthetic prostanglandin E1 analogue commonly used in management of various obstetrics and gynaecology conditions as well as in the management of stomach ulcers.

Its IUPAC nomenclature is Methyl 7-[(1R,2R,3R)-3-hydroxy-2-[(1E)-4-hydroxy-4-methyloct-1-en-1-yl]-5-oxocyclopentyl]heptanoate.

Pharmacokinetics

Misoprostol comes in tablet formulation and can be administered orally, buccally, sublingually, vaginally and rectally.… Read More “Misoprostol: Its Pharmacology and Use in Obstetrics and Gynaecology”